the oceans and riches of the new worlds
The rise of money power: Capitalism
Rise of new politics: Nationalism
Reformation: New Christianity
of Reason & Mathematics
Change in thought which is marked by scientific
empiricism, naturalism, and materialism which
enabled the rise of individualism through revolution
Reason over nature: Technology,
democracy and the presence of large urban centres
Arrival of the Modern era:
neo-Foundationism, presentism, professionalism
"imperialism of reason and science" for
"Romanticism and Spiritualism"
B.C.): Scala naturae (levels
or types of psyche).
Nutritive, Sensitive, Rational
Francis Bacon (1561-1626): Inductive observation and theory building
John Locke (1632-1704):
Simple ideas building complex ideas,
Operations of the mind (not complete tabula rasa)
Ideas of primary qualities (direct perception) and
ideas of secondary qualities (mind added)
Issac Newton (1642-1727): Laws of mechanical world, naturalism, empiricism
Organic matter is purposeful and intelligent
of traits or characteristics
seeks to provide empirical laws (limited in
circumstance) from the inductive methods of agreement
However, one should be able to deduce those empirical laws from "genuine" causal laws of nature.
Moral philosophy as a natural science.
Ethics are to be determined from the balance of
"good" & "bad" consequences. The hedonistic calculus
Erasmus Darwin: Physician, poet,
Robert Darwin: Physician, guided Charles' education and controlled his "purse-strings"
died in 1817,
From beetle collector to acclaimed
naturalist (Barros, 1998)
-Disliked Medicine (Edinburgh University)
-Not cut out for the clergy (Cambridge University)
a chance to be a naturalist, transformed
from observer to investigator
about the implications to society and himself
of publishing his ideas (delayed many years)
Gave up Christianity around 1849. His father died
in 1848, Charles was now forty. In 1852 his daughter
Annie died and Darwin lost his faith Moore (1989).
July 1, 1858: Linnean Society with Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913)
Revolution in Evolution - The New Biology - Epigenetics
1897-Continuity of species in quantitative fashion
Instincts, reflexes, habits, intelligence and the brain
"Survival of the fittest" = "Red in tooth and claw" ?
Eugenics : "Anti-Social" Darwinism and Laissez-faire Capitalism
interests: Fingerprints, word-association,
efficacy of prayer, testing drugs A to Croton oil, dog whistles
Hereditary Genius (1869): Individual selection
Charged "fee for service" of testing intelligence
Adolph Quetelet (1796-1874): Normal curve and "error" variance
Galton used the normal curve and group means to measure individuals.
Each person can be measured against the group and each group against the next.
Karl Pearson (1857-1936): Socialist who supported "planned, politically enforced program of eugenics" 1907- Established Eugenics Review
Statistical correlation coefficient - r
Alexander, B.K., (1996). Historical Foundations to Psychology.
Study guide to
psychology 307 -, Centre for Distance Education, Simon Fraser University.
Barros, C. A. (1998). From Beetle Collector to Acclaimed Naturalist.
Narrative of Transformation. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Moore, J. R. (1989). Of love and death: Why Darwin 'gave up Christianity'.
In J. R.
Moore (Ed.) History, Humanity and Evolution: Essays for John C. Greene.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.