Only Positive Science is meaningful as it uses inductive knowledge based on the verification of observations in experimentation & comparison of objective facts
Progressive knowledge for social betterment in abandoning established order or tradition.
as a religion seeks ultimate causes to establish natural Laws for
the prediction and control of the natural world.
to articulate distinction between Natural Science and Human Science
Naturwissenschaften vs. Geisteswissenschaften
Father of "Post-Modern" Hermeneutics:
1. Critical (Values):
Questioning the purpose
of knowledge production, reflecting Vico's critique
of Descartes' notion of certain objective knowledge
Explicitly recognised human
values and ethics
2. Ontological (Assumptions
Drew from Hegel's Phenomenology
of Mind: Dialectics
Thesis & Antithesis ---) Synthesis
Being & Nothing --) Becoming ...
Idea & Nature ---) Geist (Spirit)
Accepting the "vitality and freedom of self reflection"
where "self-consciousness and the world [are]
connected with each other in one [dialectical] system"
Self is embedded in
cultural history, identity is conditioned by its milieu
(Methods of knowing):
Knowledge is "always already" situated
within a (historical) context
There is no understanding without pre-understanding
Understanding (verstehen) arrives through expression (artistry)
Understanding identity reveals
personal "lived experience"
(erlibnis) against the background of culture
Autobiography is best method for revealing the nature of being human
Note: This foreshadows
Erikson's dialectics of identity and the life cycle
- Mutuality of persons "interliving"
- History taking and history making
- Emphasis on identity as both
personal and collective (cultural)
Historically Hermeneutics is found in antiquity, yet the modern forms arise from Schleiermacher (1763-1834) and Dilthey's methodological or interpretive hermeneutics. Here there was interest in moving from a regional hermeneutics towards a general one.
Following that Heidegger (1889-1976) raised the ontological question to the forefront above the epistemological one: Dasein (being there).
Two modes of being:
engaged being> everyday-in-the-world or "ready-to-hand"
disengaged being>detached reflection or "present-at-hand"
Habermas is champion of the critical hermeneutics where he identifies three goals or interests for knowledge: empirical-analytical (natural) sciences employ technical interest, historical-hermeneutical sciences employ practical interest of understanding, while the empirical-critical sciences employ emancipatory interest.
Quantitative- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Qualitative
- Theory of forms: Universal patterns of thought and personal characteristics. Based upon mathematics and music (Pythagoras).
-Hierarchy of forms where more real is more abstract - universal Good.
-These ideas provide a foundation to natural science where it searches the universal truths of nature.
(384-322 B.C.) on Knowledge
- Did not always mistrust the senses as a source of knowledge
- Favoured empiricism in that he collected "data" (e.g., biological specimens) Still, there was a strong "rationalist" element in his approach to knowledge: - propositions which he believed to be true were based more on reasoning than of the observation of facts.
- Showed how to proceed in disciplined reasoning, or drawing conclusions correctly, such that these conclusions must be true if the premises are true.
All men are mortal - (Major Premise) |
Socrates is a man - (Minor Premise) } syllogism
Therefore, Socrates is mortal. |
Note: In deductive reasoning, one begins with a universal generalization, and proceeds to validate a particular instance.
- Contrast with Inductive
Francis Bacon (1561-1626):
- Provided new perspective on knowledge:
- Knowledge of what, what for, and how?
- Seek knowledge of works,
- (Read the book of Nature)
- Knowledge for Human Enlightenment and Power
- Experimenta lucifera: seek "light"
- Experimenta fruictifera: seek "fruit",
(Note: pure vs applied distinction)
- Seek knowledge to command Nature into action, rather than to overcome an opponent in argument Knowledge for gaining power over Nature, to improve the "estate of man [sic]"on earth
Methods for Science
- How should we seek knowledge?
- start from observation of particulars and proceed to the general (Form)
- follow the Inductive method
- Criticism of Aristotelian
- In proceeding from general propositions to particulars, the entire superstructure may fall if based on faulty generalization(s)
- Proposed science as continuing, organized, cooperative, publicly funded accumulation of facts for the well-being of humanity
- Identified various types
of errors and faulty presuppositions which he called the "Idols"
John Locke (1643-1704)
Empiricism: a theory of knowledge that it is through the senses that knowledge is acquired and also its method of verification.
Tabula Rasa: Theory of knowledge (part of empiricism) that we are born like blank slates or empty vessels to be written upon or filled by experience.
Hume took empiricism to an extreme reducing the power of science to habit
Immanual Kant (1724-1804)
Rationalism: a theory of knowledge that states that knowledge comes from the correct use of reason, reasoning is also the method of the verification of knowledge.
He suggested the Categories of knowledge of experience exist a priori to enable us to have any experience. We have something like innate ideas, or rather processes and templates that enable use to know the world. E.g., one, many = totality / Dialectics
Kant attempted to return science to power by having empiricism with a rational foundation.