What is it? The Nature of Intelligence
How it is measured or tested.
Origins of Contemporary testing
Galton, McKeen Cattell & Binet
Uses and abuses
Wartime, schools, & social engineering
Models of Intelligence
Gardner's modes or "frames of mind"
Sternberg's triarchic theory
Great Debates Nature vs. Nurture
Arguments for Nature
Arguments for Nurture
Group & Racial Differences
Creativity & Intelligence
A trait or feature of a person that involves the ability to learn from experience, think abstractly, carry out a plan or offer creative solutions to novel situations?
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) ?
it is measured has an impact on what it is.
verbal, written, pictoral, behavioural, phsyiological?
The use of standarised tests is most common where they are based upon the normal curve and past samples.
Assessment of intelligence
is most often done today using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS).
It provides an overall plus two sub scores-verbal and performance.
It demonstrates a correlation of r = .50 with later school grades and somewhat with job performance (see text).
Psychometrics - the measurement of mental abilities, traits, and processes.
Important aspects of the psychometric approach:
Standardization: A property of tests where there is a uniform procedure for giving and scoring, often with reference norms. (i.e., IQ tests)
Reliability - The amount of agreement between the scores that one person has on the same test taken twice (test-retest) or separation portions of a single test (split half).
Validity - the
degree to which a test represents the categories that it is designed to measure.
Does it measure what it intends to measure?
Correlational Studies - examine how two or more variables or characteristics are regularly associated. where a correlation is a measure of the strength of the relationship of a collection of people's scores on two or more variables. Positive - Negative - No Correlation
This is often done in order to make a prediction of some later performance or ability. (I.e., GRE scores and graduate school success).
Psychometric Approach also has made use of factor analysis, a statistical method for analyzing the inter-correlations among various measures or test scores.
Here - clusters of measures or
test scores that are highly correlated are assumed to measure the same
underlying trait, ability, or aptitude (factor).
Debate remains on whether or not there is one or many factors of intelligence.
Francis Galton (1822-1911)Broad interests:
Fingerprints, testing drugs A to Z, dog whistles
Genius Survey of brilliant thinkers; all came from "talented families" - individual selection
International Health Exhibition
Gave birth to the psychometrics approach.
-Developed correlation and his student Karl Pearson (1857-1936) developed the correlation coefficient - r
-Borrowed from Adolph Quetelet (1796-1874): notions of Normal Curve and "error" variance. Assumes intelligence to be "normally distributed"
McKeen Cattell (1860-1944): Galton's
student who brought Mental testing, statistics and "individual" psychology
to North America.
-Coined the term "Mental Test." Used quantitative measures of: Reaction time, jnd, speed of hands, judge 10 seconds, bisect 50 cm, remember letters
-Developed ranking method and supported positive and negative eugenics
-1921 - Established the Psychological Corporation: Testing
Binet (1857-1911): Intelligence tests that used mental reasoning
1908 - Mental age: Expected level of ability to reason, comprehend, and make judgments.
E.G., a child with a mental age of 8 performs on a test of mental ability at the level of the average 8 year old. Standardised.
- Lewis Terman Developed the Stanford-Binet
test and Intelligence
Mental age / Chronological age X 100
-Thought that there were racial differences and that the "feebleminded" could be restricted from repoduction (Eugenics).
and Abuses of Intelligence Testing
Danziger (1990) Binet vs. Galton; France vs USA...
to help teachers identify the special needs children to give assistance in bringing up to par vs. fees for service and administrators deciding where to spend or save money.
Walter Dill Scott: Industrial psychology
-1917 - Classification of personnel,
3.5 million took proficiency test for 83 military jobs
1918 - Group tests: Army alpha and beta
Literates and illiterates: Rankings A through E
Canadian Psychological Association WWII
- The "M"-test revised Beta exam for recruits
about threats to society: Feeblemindedness
Psychology is applied to testing immigrants, troubled children, and industrial workers
Immigration: 1924 US restrictions on Southern & Eastern Europeans
that "Morons" score below average mental age
-Testing of non-Anglo Europeans revealed racial and cultural differences reported to show "cacogenics": undesirable genetic heritage.
Advocate of sterilization as part of eugenics program for human betterment.
* NOTE: 1990s court cases over forced sterilization (Lelani Muir), this is a practice that is still debated today.
In this long running debate Spearman considered that there is a "global intelligence" that underlies all mental abilities such as verbal , mathematical, spatial, musical, ...
factor a general intellectual ability assumed by some theorists
to underlie specific mental abilities and talents.
(s-residual is left over).
Louis Thurstone- one of the pioneers of factor analysis suggested that there may be as many as 56 types of intelligence that are built around 7 clusters (verbal fluency & comprehension, spatial abilities, perceptual speed, numerical ability, memory, and inductive reasoning).
Multiple Intelligences (Gardner, 1983, 1993) ( 7-later- 9) domains of intelligence:
(ie. Polynesian Naviagtors & Tibetian Spitilutalists)
1. Analytical / Componential intelligence - idea that intelligence involves the use of "mental components" within the process of answering or solving a problem.
/ Experiential intelligence deals with how one transfers skills
to novel situations. (using insight, unique and novel solutions to situations
3. Practical / Contextual intelligence the ability to take in new contexts and adapt to the environment, E.g., wisdom, common sense, social competence,...
Successful intelligence makes use of all three of these types and is defined as "one’s ability to set and accomplish personally meaningful goals in one’s life, given one’s cultural context". It also makes use of tacit knowledge.
Tacit Knowledge - Strategies for success (or knowledge of anything else) that are not explicitly taught but that instead must be inferred.
Tacit (practical) knowledge is procedural invovling how to manage oneself, how to
manage tasks, and how to get along with others, based upon 'complex multi-condition rules' and is experience-based and action-oriented.
- This has shown improvement in writing, reading, test-taking ability, homework performance (Sternberg, et al., 1995). (better than IQ?)
Emotional Intelligence - refers to the ability to identify your own and other's emotions accurately, and to express your emotions clearly, and regulate emotions in yourself and others (Goleman, 1995).
-pecption of emotions
It is a form of "Social Intelligence" where people who are not be able to understand their own and others emotions may have challenges in school achievement (especially of boys) may feel anxious, confused or angry which inhibits their learning in school.
Arguments for Nature
(Bouchard & McGue, 1981):
twin studies - concordance rates (correlation between pairs)
identical reared together .86
similar to the same person taking a test twice.
identical reared apart .72
reared together .62 (same sex) .57 (opposite)
siblings reared together .47
siblings reared apart .25
adopted siblings reared together .30
heritability estimates near .5
Longitudinal (Seattle) study (Schaie, 1983; 1993) of 5000 20-80 year olds found great stability from age 21 to 57, some small decline after 60.
Infant tests-age smile, turn head to noise show no relation to later IQ, but notice new stimulus does relate.
performance on academic achievement SAT predicts r=.86 with later GRE scores.
Adopted children become less similar to their adopted parents once they become adults.
Yet, on average adopted children have IQs 10 - 20 points higher than their birth parents!
Faster neural speed- appears to have positive correlation. Brain speed has been found to be stable over 11 year span.
Brain size and Grey matter (neural cell bodies) has also been shown to be associated with intelligence, and can be altered with experience (neural plasticity).
I.e. Einstein's was 15% larger than normals in parietal areas for math and spatial abilities.
Gene on chromosome #6 appears to be correlated with high intelligence. Genetic engineering of mice found "smarter" mice.
differences in abilities and aptitudes?
Perhaps on verbal, spelling, object memory, touch & sensation, where females score better, whereas neither perform better on math computational-problem solving.
Males tend to perform better at spatial and spatial rotation and complex mathematical problems.
Due to hormones & development?
Gender generally score same (more variation within than between), text suggests tend to men score more at higher and lower extremes. See also (Kimura, 1999).
Arguments for the Nurture side
(1989) many environmental influences:
Poor prenatal care
Exposure to toxins
Large Family Size
Stressful family circumstances
Each above risk factor reduced a child's IQ by four points! combining additively
Debate: Can Intelligence be changed?
Success and Intelligence
(1921) Terman ... Stanford project ....of most gifted found motivation was most important as many failed to achieve their potentials without it.
Early intervention in orphanages increases in IQ .
Head Start programmes provide short term and possibly long term gains in IQ and practical abilities.
Best to start early and continue longer with more intensive daily programme. Direct educational experience, programme of maintenance and positive attitude & behaviours.
Schooling increases one's IQ during the school term with some decline following.
Based upon reviews by James Flynn it has been found that the average IQ rates have climbed in developing countries since 1920 ! Have people gotten that much smarter? Why? nutrition? education? genetics? Or does this leave us to think: "intelligence" is a questionable concept?
The Mozart Effect
"Racial" Differences, Nature or Nurture?
In the USA research has found that in the Chinese and Japanese children score considerably higher than American children (averages) (Eysenck, 1991; Jensen, 1992). Why? Genetics?
- Americans believe you are born with it or not
- American parents had lower standards than these others,
Asians attend 30% more days of school.
- American students felt more conflict and stress over school < support (role models & sterotypes)
- Americans did not value education as much as Asians
Cultural constructions of self and world:
ie. Similarities: Which does not fit: Bird, Sky, Cat; Dog, Carrot, Rabbit.
Asians tend to be more holistic and Euro-Americans more analytical.
Most contemporary Intelligence tests do not inquire about how one answers.
"Black" and "White" Americans fathering children raised in Germany - no differences in average IQ
-Black and white infants score equally on preference for novel stimuli and later IQ scores
Questions of Cultural Bias -Afro-Americans score on average 15 points less than others, need to have knowledge of the dominant culture. Culture "fair" tests were developed to avoid such biases with classifying objects, patterns on blocks , the Chitlin Test
Culture Free and Culture-Fair Tests
1970s brought about greater awareness for the cultural biases and assumptions for certain tests.
"Culture free" tests were attempted but it was found that this was an impossible goal.
Instead, "Culture-fair" tests were designed to incorporate knowledge and skills common to many cultures.
This too was not fully successful, as white "middle class" ways of sorting categories and ideas did not match with other views. Some replied, e.g., the chitlin test
Performance may be affect by numerous things, diet, mood, state of health, exposure to books, ....
David Myers cites
Why do Intelligent People Fail?
Ultimately Intelligence is an Interaction of nature and nurture like the soil-reaction range
Creativity & Intelligence
The ability to produce novel ideas and behaviours either as an expression or as problem solving (solutions).
Five Components to Creativity
1) Expertise -knowledge base
- accumulated information & ideas
2) Imaginative thinking skills - ability for insight, to see things in new patterns or uses, or connections
3) Adventuresome personality - tolerates ambiguity & risk perseveres or overcomes
4) Intrinsic motivation - pleasure in challenge
5) Creative environment - sparks, supports, refines, mentored, challenged, workshop, students,...
how do you get a cork out of a wine bottle?
Wade, Tavris et al. (2010) report that there are many perspectives on animal intelligence.
Behaviorists, like Skinner deny that animals, and even humans have minds, while others like the Gestalt theorists consider insight and intelligence to be present in other species. Chimps & Orangutans
They also report that Orangutans in Sumatra use sticks as tools to get insects from trees.
Likewise bottle-nosed dolphins use sponges when foraging along coral reefs. They also understand language & syntax.
Other chimpanzees make use of tools and show signs of mourning and loss (i.e. Washoe & Koko-the Gorilla).
Some can understand numbers and human language to about the level of a six year old (see Kanzi).
Crows use tools as well and also have shown signs or mourning.
Alex the Parrot
is it just
reinforcement or true
Stanley Coren (1995) the intelligence of Dogs