Diversity and Pluralism into the future
You say you want a Revolution?)



I. Social and Political Revolutions:

Forms of life and Counter Cultures

1950's mainstream "middle-class" life vs. "Beatniks"

1960's mainstream "middle-class" vs. "Hippies" & "Yippies"

From Elvis to the Beatles massive revolutions
in music and popular culture through television and radio

1964 - Ken Kesey & the Electric Kool-aid Acid Test,
the Grateful Dead, Haight-Ashbury, Jefferson Airplane, ...
Sunshine Day Dream - Renaissance Fairgrounds1972

Youth and "negative Identity" challenging the identities
given by parents, teachers, & the "establishment"

1967 - Woodstock, Timothy Leary released from Harvard
War in Viet Nam, moon expeditions, assassinations, Canada's Centennial
Leary returns to Harvard - Erikson Story

Jung became popularized: Archetypes and Mandalas

"Eastern" perspectives: From Alan Watts to Baba Ram Das

Taoism, Tantric Buddhism, Vedanta, & Zen


Canada and Quebec separation, Unity or Diversity?


II. Humanistic Psychology: The Third Force

Challenges to the determinism of psychoanalysis and behaviorism: Free Will

Made use of Existential-Phenomenological perspective in understanding the personal experience of people



Carl Rogers (1902-1987): Client centred therapy 


Three modes of knowing:
1) Objective
2) Subjective Personal
3) Subjective 'other' or empathic

1961 - On becoming a person : A "fully functioning" one


Abraham Maslow (1908-1970): Self Actualization

Hierarchy of Needs and personal growth towards fulfillment of authenticity and ataraxia or tranquillity

Peak experiences and B-values: Truth, Beauty, Wholeness, Effortless, Playfulness, Uniqueness, Aliveness


These Influences along with others lead to the development of current positive psychology.


Thomas Szasz: The medical "myth" of mental illness

1952 DSM was developed.
Then grew a critique of the prescription of major tranquilizers and labeling
that grew out of the 50s into today's massive industry
where advertising and sample prescriptions abound.

Contemporary Big Pharma - paying doctors to prescribe,
and paying universities to propose and opppose opponents.

"Stakeholder" in DSM5



III. New Structuralism: Piaget and "Cognitive" psychology


Epistemogenesis : the epigenesis of knowledge where the knower and the known go through
qualitative changes in schematta using  assimilation and accomodation

Sensory Motor Operations
Concrete Operations
Formal Operations

Lawrence Kohlberg and stages of moral reasoning (Heinz)
        Pre-Conventional: Ego oriented
        Conventional: Social & Rule oriented
        Post-Conventional: Principle oriented

Carol Gilligan: Care based morality
        Men typically make use of a disengaged perspective of reason
        Women typically make use of an engaged perspective of care


IV. Feminism and the Womens' Liberation Movement

Sandra Pyke and Cannie Stark-Adamec (1981): The first ten years

1972 - Six women from York University started an "underground" movement

1975 - CPA Task Force on the Status of Women in Canadian Psychology

1980 - Establishment of SWAP: Section on Women and Psychology

Feminism and Applied psychology: Documentation of traditional inadequacies and the development of guidelines for practice and ethical treatment



Meredith Kimball (1986): Ground-breaking from the underground  


Goal to eliminate sexist bias: Language, methods, ...

Interdisciplinary orientation is crucial

Goal for consciousness raising and political challenge


Early Feminist scholars:

Helen Bradford Thompson Wooley (1874-1947):
1903 PhD at Chicago
Also a leader in rebutting myths
Instrumental in the development
of Merrill-Palmer Scales of child development



Leta Stetter Hollingworth (1886-1939):
1916 PhD at Columbia
Refuted myths about women, including the
decrement of performance during menstruation  


Pioneer in child psychology: First to use term "gifted"


Mary J. Wright (1992): Women Ground-breakers in Canadian psychology

 Meredith Kimball (1994): Two Traditions of feminist research

Similarities tradition:
Maccoby & Jacklin (1974): The psychology of sex differences

Differences Tradition:
Karen Horney (1926): Critique of Freud's "Penis Envy"

Nancy Chodorow (1974): The reproduction of mothering

Carol Gilligan (1982): In a different voice

Tension between the traditions: Both traditions have strengths in spite of the paradoxical
contradictions seen through their dialectical relationship

Feminism and the philosophy of science: New Hermeneutics
Sandra Harding (1986): Empiricism, standpoint & post-modernism

Frances Cherry
- Critical Feminist Social Psychology
& Action Research

Carleton University - Professor Emeritus

Archivist for The History and Philosophy of Psychology Section
Archivist for the Canadian Psychological Association
Important contributor to CPA-History & Philosopy of Psychology Sectiom, ISTP, Cheiron, & SPSSI

Sample of Publications:
Husband-wife similarity in response to erotic stimuli (1973)
Helping or hurting?: The aggression paradigm. (1973)
Fear of success versus fear of gender-inappropriate behavior (1978)
The Stubborn Particulars of Social Psychology (1995)
'Society very definitely needs our aid': Reflecting on SPSSI in history (2011)

V. Information Processing: The other "Cognitive" psychology

Neo-Realism and the motor theory of consciousness have developed through behaviorism into information processing

Associationism is present throughout this tradition, along with the reduction of consciousness and thought to logical operations

 Myth of the origin: The "Cognitive Revolution"?


VI. Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence

A.M. Turing (1912-1954): The "Turing Test"

If a person cannot distinguish between a computer and a human respondent the computer has passed
the test of "thought"

 Daniel Dennett (1978): Neo-Functionalism

Computational (mathematical) functions and the formal (logical) rules they imply are the
foundation of all activity 

Intentionality is not a special human activity, but rather the "stance" provided by physical operations.

 Stephen Stich (1983): Semantics (meaning) is not reducible to Syntax (form or structure)

 John Searle and the "Chinese Room": Model Confusion
The room does not think, it is the person(s) involved in interaction with it.
The computer is merely a symbol manipulation device

Meteorologists create computer models of hurricanes but they don't believe that the computer has gotten all wet and blown apart inside, so why do cognitive scientists believe they have created intelligence?

New Connectionism: Parallel Distributed Processing

BIG DATA and the collection of information and tracking and manipulation (prediction and control) of your behaviour through online interaction (browesing, shopping, social media,...) closed circut cameras, credit card and spending habits, health insirance and DNA testing (ancestry), human engineering with crysper technology.

      Resurgence of Cognitive Neuro-Science - Imaging techniques make it possible to gain more accurate knowledge of the localization of function in the brain (motor theory of consciousness revisited).

E.g.  you tubes of VS Ramachandran

Cloning and other genetic mapping studies make knowledge of the growth and development (ongoing) of the brain and nervous system  throughout life - > Stem Cell research and plasticity in the brain.

VII. Cultural psychology of Intentional worlds

Heelas and Lock (1982): Indigenous psychologies or worldviews about the self and person are situated in history



Anand Paranjpe (1984/1998): Theoretical Psychology of Indian and European thought  


PhD. In India (Poona) following studies in librarianship. Began looking into Caste and Prejudice, inspired by Ambedkar the hero of the untouchables to work towards liberation.

In 1966 Erik Erikson was in Indian working on his book on Gandhi when he was given a paper written by Paranjpe. After seeking out the author, Erikson joined Paranjpe in hours of conversation culminating in the acceptance of a Fulbright scholarship for post-doctoral studies for Paranjpe at Harvard University.

While at Harvard, he  worked with Erik Erikson as well as Professors: Stanley Milgram, Robert White, Cora DuBois, and Gordon Allport who urged Paranjpe to take a position at the new formed Simon Fraser University near Vancouver BC.

Professor Emeritus in Psychology and Humanities at Simon Fraser University major publication on Self and Identity and on Emotion in Indian and Western Thought.

Richard Shweder (1990): Cultural psychology is the psychological investigation of "forms of life" as intentional worlds imbued with meaning

 There is an emergence of interdisciplinary studies in sociology, anthropology and psychology

Carl Ratner (1997) Cultural psychology and the critique of logical positive models cross-cultural psychology

Michael Cole (1996). Cultural psychology: A once a future discipline. Drawing from the Russian Historical cultural psychology of Vygotsky & Luria as well as American Pragmatism. (See Tonks 2015 and Tonks 2017a)

Jaan Valsiner is arguably the leading scholar in this area today, founding editor or "Culture & Psychology" journal

He is the lead scholar at Aalborg univeristy in Copenhagen Denmark




VIII. The future fate of psychology?

We have examined many "forms of life" in which psychologists are actively engaged, however, this has been a limited review of the history of psychology in Europe and North America

  Recently, Bhatt & Tonks (2002) have challenged the Discipline's commitment to teaching the history of psychology, however, things may be localized only to specific cultural contexts and periods of time (Tonks & Bhatt, 2002). 

Multiculturalism and social change: Unity or Diversity?

 From philosophy of science are the dialectics of interpretation
and fact and two perspectives on making history
(Insider & Outsider)

 Neuro-Science vs. Folk psychology

Churchland's vs Davidson

Eliminative materialism vs. Anomalistic Monism


Psychology is caught in a dialectic between natural science and human science,

between the IS and the OUGHT,
between nature and morality,
between universals and particulars,
between objectivism and relativism,
between internal and external,
between scientist and practitioner

 Are there revolutions or evolutions?

 Are there going to be pendulum swings like Yin & Yang turning for evermore?

 What about the future of the history of Psychology?